Management is the method of safeguarding that an organization or company is able to operate in both the immediate and near future … in other words Management is the process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals, working together in groups, accomplish efficiently selected aims. This basic definition needs to be expanded:
- As managers, people carry out the managerial functions of planning, organizing, staffing, leading, and controlling.
- Management applies to any kind of organization.
- It applies to managers at all organizational levels.
- The aim of all managers is the same: to create a surplus.
- Managing is concerned with productivity; that implies effectiveness and efficiency.
“Managers make things happen through strategic and entrepreneurial leadership.”
Functions of Management
Planning: Predetermining a course of action for accomplishing organizational objectives
Organizing: Arranging the relationships among work units for accomplishment of objectives and the granting of responsibility and authority to obtain those objectives
Staffing: Selecting and training people for positions in the organization
Directing or (Leading): Creating an atmosphere that will assist and motivate people to achieve desired end results
Controlling: Establishing, measuring, and evaluating performance of activities toward planned objectives.
Remember the sequence in this format. (P-O-S-D-C)
Management applies to any type of organization
It applies to various organizational types, such as:
– Government agencies
– Non-profit organizations
– Products and/or Services
Management applies to managers at all organizational levels.
– All managers carry out managerial functions.
– Despite different departments and different tasks involved for each department or organization.
– Depending on management level, percentages of functional responsibilities may differ.
Who is a Manager
A manager is someone who coordinates and oversees the work of other people so that organizational goals can be accomplished. It is not about personal achievement but helping others do their job. Managers may also have additional work duties not related to coordinating the work of others.
Managers can be classified by their level in the organization, particularly in traditionally structured organizations—those shaped like a pyramid
First-line managers (often called supervisors) are located on the lowest level of management.
Middle managers include all levels of management between the first-line level and the top level of the organization.
Top managers include managers at or near the top of the organization who are responsible for making organization-wide decisions and establishing plans and goals that affect the entire organization.
Understanding Roles of Managers
Management Roles In the late 1960s, Henry Mintzberg conducted a precise study of managers at work. He concluded that managers perform 10 different roles, which are highly interrelated. Management roles refer to specific categories of managerial behaviour. Overall there are ten specific roles performed by managers which are included in the following three categories.
1) Interpersonal roles include figurehead, leadership, and liaison activities.
2) Informational roles include monitoring, disseminating, and spokesperson activities.
3) Decisional roles include entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator, and negotiator.
Although the functions approach represents the most useful way to describe the manager’s job, Mintzberg’s roles give additional insight into managers’ work. Some of the ten roles do not fall clearly into one of the four functions, since all managers do some work that is not purely managerial.
What are Effective Management Skills
Management Skills Managers need certain skills to perform the challenging duties and activities associated with being a manager. Robert L. Katz found through his research in the early 1970s that managers need three essential skills
1) Technical skills are job-specific knowledge and techniques needed to proficiently perform specific tasks.
2) Human skills are the ability to work well with other people individually and in a group.
3) Conceptual skills are the ability to think and to conceptualize about abstract and complex situations.
What is the aim of all managers: “ To Create a Surplus ”
To “establish an environment in which people can accomplish group goals with the least amount of time, money, materials, and personal dissatisfaction.”
How managing is concerned with productivity
The definition of productivity is, :The output-input ratio within a time period with due consideration for quality of product or service”.
This means the need for effectiveness and efficiency in work performed.
Effectiveness is the achievement of objectives, whereas, Efficiency is the achievement of goals with the least resources.